Well's scoring / criteria
|Lower limb trauma or surgery or immobilisation in a plaster cast||+1|
|Bed ridden for more than three days or surgery within the last four week||+1|
|Tenderness along line of femoral or popliteal veins (NOT just calf tenderness)||+1|
|Entire limb swollen||+1|
|Calf more than 3cm bigger circumference, 10cm below tibial tuberosity||+1|
|Dilated collateral superficial veins (on-varicose)||+1|
|Past Hx of confirmed DVT||+1|
|Malignancy (including treatment up to six months previously)||+1|
|Alternative diagnosis is more likely than DVT||-2|
Rivaroxaban Special populations
- Xarelto is to be used with caution in these patients.
- Please check BNF or medicines.ie
- Rivaroxaban is contraindicated in patients with hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy and clinically relevant bleeding risk including cirrhotic patients with Child Pugh B and C.
- No dose adjustment.
- No dose adjustment
- No dose adjustment.
- Xarelto is not recommended for patients <18 years.
Not suitable for home treatment
- Unable to walk, frail or in severe pain.
- Unable to understand the instructions.
- Unable to understand the importance of compliance with the treatment.
- Unable to return for the scan next morning - if awaiting scan.
- Liver disease
- active peptic ulcer
- alcohol abuse.
Management Proven VTE
Provoked leg DVT
Anticoagulate for 3 months.
Increased risk of occult malignancy so:
- Ask about personal or family history of malignancy and symptoms concerning for underlying malignancy e.g. weight loss, bleeding, altered bowel habit etc.
- A thorough physical exam: including breast and PR.
- Ensure age appropriate screening is up to date.
- Check FBC, ESR, LFT, U&E, CXR, Ca++, urinalysis and CXR.
- Men > 40 - request PSA.
- The need for further investigation (endoscopy, imaging etc.) should be guided by findings from the history and exam and results from the initial blood tests (ISTH 2017, NICE 2020).
Isolated calf DVT
For high risk (e.g. cancer) patients, or very symptomatic patients, - treat with Rivaroxaban 15mg bd po day 1-21 then Rivaroxaban 20mg od po day 22+) for 3 months.
For low risk patients who are mildly sympomatic, please discuss with the patient. Anticoagulation reduces the incidence of clot propagation, clot recurrence (3% vs. 9% Cochrane [below] NNT = 16) and the need for re-scan but increases the risk of bleeding and means taking tablets each day for 3 months. Anticoagulation does not reduce the incidence of PE with isolated calf DVT.
If you and the patient jointly decide to not anticoagulate, please ask the patient to return for a rescan in 1-2 weeks (15% propagate).
Considered in those
- Patients with a known FHx of thrombophilia
- Under 45 years old with VTE, no ppt cause
- Recurrent thromboses
- Thrombosis in an unusual site
- FHx of thrombosis or
- FHx of recurrent (2 or more) VTE
- Past Hx of of recurrent foetal loss
- Protein S, Protein C
- APC resistance
- Factor V Leiden mutation
- Lupus anticoagulant
- Anticardiolipin antibodies
British Journal of Haematology 2010: 149 (2) 209-220 Clinical guidelines for testing for heritable thrombophilia (www.bcshguidelines.com)